Ger 312 Handbook


Concepts, Methods, Historical Developments, and Current Trends in Medieval Studies

ed. Prof. Dr. Albrecht Classen (Tucson, Arizona / USA)

Last update: 12-01-2008

Last possible submission: Feb. 8, 2009

Bolded entries are those that had to be cut b/c they were not submitted or b/c no author could be found. Italicized entries are long overdue and probably lost.

cover art

The castle represents the published Handbook, the group of ladies and lords represents the contributors, and I would like to claim to be the guy wearing the red head-gear as the guide to the ultimate goal.


This is an outline of the planned Handbook of Medieval Studies to be published by de Gruyter (Berlin and New York). Assignment of entries is currently ongoing, and if you are interested, please contact the editor (see above.  This Handbook does not have the ambition to cover the entire Middle Ages from a historical, or cultural perspective, since it does not aim to be an encyclopedia, or dictionary, of the Middle Ages, and does not want to compete with similar enterprises, such as Lexikon des Mittelalters.  The purpose, by contrast, is to provide an extensive survey of major concepts, methods, theories, critical approaches, key terms, textual genres (in its widest possible definition), and major figures in medieval scholarship. The German term for this would be: Forschungsbericht. I cannot emphasize this enough that all entries are primarily intended to provide a historical overview of the relevant research in each area. As the title indicates, this is supposed to be a handbook, that is, a pragmatic tool for medievalists in all sub-disciplines as a reference work which will provide compact and critical information about the fundamental aspects of our field, that is, the history of research.  The reader should gain an extensive understanding of where and how Medieval Studies began and how they developed in theoretical and pragmatic terms over the last two hundred years.  Any suggestions as to expand the list, to refine specific terms, or to consider any kinds of alternatives are most welcome.  (Names in brackets following the entry title indicate that this entry is already assigned). Preliminarily, I anticipate the first group of entries to consist of max. 4000-5000 words, the second of max. 3000 words, the third of max. 2000 words, and the fourth of max. 1000 words.

Absolute and final deadline for submission: Jan. 15, 2009.

Entries that have already been submitted will be marked with **

If anyone notices a topic not yet covered, please let me know.

EDITING: Here is a list of common errors or things that need to be changed (often I do the changes myself, but if they become too many, I’ll return the article to the author requesting help):

    * comma or period after the title of a journal, must be deleted
    * round brackets within round brackets: change to square brackets, esp. when ref. to an article published in a journal, cited within round brackets
    * Biblical or Rabbinical or Islamic always capitalized as thus
    * titles of books and journals: always in italics; subtitles separated by colon
    * titles of articles followed by: ,”  then an ‘in’ must not appear here
    * all punctuations within the quotation marks
    * possessive ‘s’ not in small caps
    * sequences of years are always written out: 1928-1930
    * sequences of pages only partly, if in triple or higher digits, the first in the second number is dropped: e.g. 104-06; but: 44-48, or: 1-9
    * ed. always after the title, followed by the editor’s name. Always: ed., not eds. or edn.
    * not München or Wien, but Munich and Vienna, and so also: Cologne
    * for rough time estimates: ca. (c. is reserved for centuries)
    * in French titles, the first word after a definite article is capitalized: Le Nom
    * in English titles, all meaningful words are capitalized
    * no comma before a round bracket (e.g., for a reference to a book title:  ZfdA 84 (2002): 16-32
    * within the text: no cities or publishers for books, but both must be cited in the bibliography (e.g.: Leiden, Cologne, and Vienna: Brill, 1998), 44-48
    * first names must be written out, if possible, last names of scholars in small caps (not capital letters)
    * final bibliography consists of max. 10-12 titles, everything else within the text. Here, first names appear before last names, e.g.: Jaroslav Pelikan, Historical Theology: Continuity and Change in Christian Doctrine (New York: Corpus, Philadelphia: Westminster,  London: Hutchinson, 1971).

    de Gruyter Encyclopaedia
    Concepts, Methods, and Trends in Medieval Studies

    ed. Prof. Dr. Albrecht Classen (Tucson, Arizona / USA), Dept. of German Studies, 301 Learning Services Building, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721,; Tel.: (520) 621-1395; Fax: (520) 626-8268

    Guidelines for writing the entries are now available from the editor.

        A. Main topics and debates of the last decades and their terminology and results. Each entry consists of max. 50, 000 characters (in German: Zeichen), so there is some flexibility up to that limit:

        I. General outline of topic
        II. Terminological definition
        III. History of research, schools of thought, approaches
        IV. Current issues and future trends
        V. Summary
        VI. Bibliography (abbreviated)

        Anthropology in Medieval Studies (Janice M. Bogstad) Date:
        Aabic and Islamic Studies:
            Arab West (Thomas Glick) **
            Arab East (Mark David Luce) **
            Anatolia and Eastern Europe
            Iran and Central Asia (Khodadad Rezakhani) Date: May 2008
            West Africa
            South Asia (Harbans Mukhia) Date: June 2008
            Islamic Art and Architecture (Amy Newhall) Date:

            Archaeology and History of Art in pre-Islamic Iran and Central Asia (Matteo Compareti) **
        Archaeology (Christopher Landon) **
            Arabic Literature (Mark Pettigrew) **
            Persian Literature (Mark David Luce) **
            Qur’anic Studies (Erik S. Ohlander) **
            Islamic Law (Gregory Mack) Date:
            Islamic Philosophy (Alessandro Cancian) **
            Islamic Theology (Livnat Holtzman) **
            Sufism (the major mystical tradition) (Qamar-ul Huda) Date:
            Shi’ism (sectarianism) (Alessandro Cancian) **
            Natural Sciences in the Islamic Context (Glen Cooper) **
        Archeology in Medieval Studies (Chris Landon)
        Architecture (Laura Hollengreen) Date:
        Art History (Elina Gertsman) **
        Astronomical Instruments (David A. King) **
        Audience of medieval literature (Paula Leverage) Date:
        Bakhthinian Discourse Theory, Heteroglossia (Stephen Carey) **
        Biblical Exegesis (Frans van Liere) **
        Botany (Alaine Touwaide) Date: Sept., 2008
        Byzantine Art and Architecture (Sophia Germanidou) **
        Byzantine Studies: Philosophy (Georgi Kapriev) **
        Byzantine Studies: Sciences (Alaine Touwaide) Date: Sept., 2008
        Byzantine Studies: Theology (George Arabatzis) **
        Chronology, see Time Management
        Classics and Mythography in the Middle Ages (Gregory Heyworth) **
        Codicology and Paleography (Alaine Touwaide) Date: Sept. 2008
        Communication Theory in Medieval Studies (A. Classen)**
        Computer-Based Medieval Research  (Ulrich Müller) **
        Conversion (Matthew dal Santo) **
        Cornish Studies (Brian Murdoch) **
        Crusade Studies (Andrew Holt) **
        Danish Studies – see Nordic Studies
        Deconstruction in Medieval Studies (Maurice Sprague) **
        Digital Philology (K. Sarah-Jane Murray)
        Diplomatics (Theo Kölzer) **
        Editing of Medieval Texts (Craig Baker) **
        English Studies (Robin Gilbank) **
        Enlightenment Perspectives of the Middle Ages (Reinhold Münster) **
        Epigraphics (Walter Koch) **
        Eschatology in Medieval Studies (Peter Dinzelbacher) **
        Every Day Life in Medieval Studies (Valerie Garver) **
        Folklore in Medieval Studies (Salvatore Calomino) **
        Feminism (Barbara Stevenson) **
        Formalism (Scott Taylor)
        French Studies (Wendy Pfeffer) **
        Friendship and Networking (Walter Ysebaert) **
        The Function of Literature in the Middle Ages (K. Sarah-Jane Murray and Kathleen Miller)
        Gender Studies  **
        German Studies (Frank Gentry) **
        Heraldics (Heiko Hartmann) **
        Hermeneutics and Textual Criticism (Raymond Cormier) **
        Historical Studies (Andrew Holt) **
        History of Material Culture in Medieval Studies (Markus I. Cruse) **
        Iberian Studies (James A. Grabowska) **
        Icelandic Studies – see Nordic Studies
        Industrial Revolution (Adam Lucas) **
        Interdisciplinarity in Medieval Studies (Gerhard Jaritz) **
        Inter/Cross-Cultural Studies (Barbara Stevenson) **
        Intertextuality and Comparative Approaches in Medieval Literature (Sarah Gordon) **
        Irish Studies (William Sayers) **
        Italian Studies (Claudia Boscolo) **
        Japan, Medieval (Barbara Stevenson) **
        Jewish Studies (Jean Baumgarten) **
        Kings and Royal Authority
        Law in Medieval Studies/Legal Studies (Scott Taylor) **
        Law: German Legal Studies (Gerald Kohl) **
        Linguistics, Historical (Tonya Kim Dewey)
        Libraries and Collections (Janice M. Bogstad)
        Manuscripts: Past and Present Approaches (Susan Noakes) **
        Material Culture (Mark I. Cruse) **
        Marxist and Socialist Approaches to Medieval Studies (Sarah Gordon) **
        Masculinity Studies (Daniel F. Pigg) **
        Measuring, Numbers, Accounting, see Metrology
        Media of Medieval literature: Oral Poetry – Manuscripts – Text Tradition (Marcella Munson)
        Medicine (Carrie Griffin) **
        Medieval Cultural Studies (Janice M. Bogstad)
        Mentality in Medieval Studies (David Tinsley) **
        Metrology (Moritz Wedell) **
        Middle Ages Today (Ulrich Müller) **
        Modern Reception of the Middle Ages (Paula Leverage)
        The Mongols (Hassan Bashir) Date: June 2008
        Museums and Exhibitions (Siegrid Schmidt) **
        Music in Medieval Studies (James Zychowicz) **
        Mysticism (Debra Stoudt) **
        Myths (Scott Taylor)
        Narratology and Literary Theory in Medieval Studies (Jonathan Newman)
        New Philology (Susan Yager) **
        Nordic Studies (Russell Poole) **
        Numismatics (Rory Naismith) **
        Occitan Studies (Michelle Bolduc) **
        Queer Studies (Forrest C. Helvie) Jan. 2009
        Paleography, see Codicology
        Performance of Medieval Texts (Ulrich Müller) **
        Pharmacology, Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Legislation, Practice of Pharmacy (Alain Touwaide)        Date: Sept., 2008
        Philosophy in Medieval Studies (Stephen Penn) **
        Political Theory in Medieval Studies (Scott Taylor) **
        Popes and Papacy (Frances A. Parton) **
        Popular Religion/Spirituality in Medieval Studies (Daniel E. O’Sullivan) **
        Post-Colonialism in Medieval Studies (James Tindal Acken) **
        Psychological Interpretation of Medieval Literature (Paula Leverage)
        Race and Ethnicity (Diane Auslander) **
        Rediscovery of the Middle Ages (Late Eighteenth Century/Turn of the Century) (Berta Raposo) **
        Religious Studies Studies (Peter Dinzelbacher) **
        Religious Debates
        Research Institutes, Archives, and Libraries for the Middle Ages (Gertrud Blaschitz) **
        Sciences in Medieval Studies (Sarah Powrie)**
        Slavic Studies (Marta Deyrup) **
        Scripts (Peter Stokes) **
        Semiotics of Culture (Sarah-Grace Heller) **
        Social History and Medieval Studies (Harry Kitsikopoulo) **
        Social Constructionism (Daniel F. Pigg) April 15, 2008
        Social and Economic Theory in Medieval Studies (Harry Kitsikopoulo) **
        Sphragistics (Thomas Vogtherr) Date: Feb. 29, 2008
        Structuralism in Medieval Studies (Stephen M. Carey) March 28
        Technology in Medieval Studies (Thomas Glick) (see also the entry on ‘Industrial Revolution’) **
        Swedish Studies – see Nordic Studies
        The Term ‘Middle Ages’ (Hiram Kümper) **
        Text and Image in the Middle Ages (James Rushing) May 1, 2008 **
        Text and ‘Literature’ in the Middle Ages (Paolo De Ventura)
        Theology in Medieval Studies (Leo D. Lefebure) **
        Time Measurement and Chronology in Medieval Studies (Camarin Porter) **
        Transfer of Knowledge and Translations (Alain Touwaide), Date: Sept., 2008
        Utopias (Heiko Hartmann) **
        Welsh Studies  (Andrew Breeze) **

        B. Dictionary of Important Terms in Today’s Medieval Studies
        Each entry consists of max. 16,000 characters

        Aesthetics (Markus I. Cruse) **
        Author 1 (Tracy Adams) **
        Author 2 (Michelle Bolduc) **
        Allegory (Bettina Full) **
        The Body (Scott Pincikowski) **
        Chivalry (John A. Geck) **
        Comic (Sarah Gordon) **
        Contrafacture (Daniel E. O’Sullivan) **
        Curialitas (Courtliness) (Gregory Heyworth) **
        Discourse (Karen K. Jambeck) **
        Fictionality (Stephen Mark Carey) March 28
        Frontier, Transgression, Liminality (Waltraud Fritsch-Rößler) **
        Game (Maurice Sprague) **
        Gestures (Klaus Oschema) **
        Images (Gerhard Jaritz) **
        Irony (Jeannine Horowitz)
        Laughter (Waltraud Fritsch-Rößler) **
        Marvelous (K. Sarah-Jane Murray)
        Memory (Paula Leverage)
        Mouvance (Roy Rosenstein) **
        Orality (Marcella Munson)
        Parody (Sarah Gordon) **
        Prosopography, Christian (Katharine Keats-Rohan) **
        Rituals and Performance (Gerhard Jaritz) **
        Reference Works (Albrecht Classen **
        Rhetorics (Shannon McCabe)
        Space and Nature (Christopher Clason) **
        Text (Markus I. Cruse) **
        The Transcendental (George Arabatzis) Febr. 13, 2009 (will be delivered!)
        Translation (Marcella Munson)
        Typology (Heiko Hartmann) **
        Vernacular and Latin etc. (Paolo deVentura)
        Violence (Scott Pincikowski) **

        C. Textual genres in the Middle Ages
        Each entry consists of max. 13, 000 characters.      

        Adversos-Judaeos Treatises  (Hiram Kümper) **
        Allegorical Poems (Colleen Butler)
        Antidotaries (Alain Touwaide), Date: Sept., 2008
        Ars Dictaminis (open again)
        Art Manuals (Flavio Boggi) **
        Autobiography and Biography (Julie Singer) **
        Ballads and Libels (Christian Kuhn) **
        Bestiaries, Aviaries, Physiologus (Renee Ward) **
        Bibles and Harmonies (Heiko Hartmann) **
        Bibles, Popular (Brian Murdoch) **
        Books of Hour (Elina Gertsman) **
        Calendars (Meta Niederkorn-Bruck), March 30, 3008
        Calendars, Islamic (Simone Cristoforetti) **
        Cantigas de amigos (Samuel G. Armistead) **
        Ceremonial texts (Cristine Maria Grafinger) **
        Chansons de geste (Stephen M. Carey) March 28
        Charms and Incantations (Russell Poole) **
        Charters (Philip Slavin) **
        Children’s Literature (Modern) on the Middle Ages (Siegrid Schmidt) **
        Chronicles (R. Graeme Dunphy) **
        Commentaries (Bible, classical texts, philosophical treatises) (Salvatore Calomino) May 1, 2008
        Cook Books (Timothy Tomasik) **
        Courtesy Books (Klaus Oschema) **
        Courtly Romance (Colleen Butler)
        Courtly Love poetry (Mary Paddock)
        Debate Poems (Patricia Black) **
        Dictionaries (Albrecht Classen) **
        Didactic/Gnomic poems (Russell Poole) **
        Distinctiones (Ilya Dines)
        Dit (Steven Millen Taylor) **
        Drama (John A. Geck) **
        Encyclopedias (Nadia Margolis) ** – see also Lexica, Botanical
        Epics, see Heroic epics
        Exempla (Salvatore Calomino) April 15, 2008
        Financial and tax reports (Georg Vogeler) **
        Fürstenspiegel— see Mirrors for Princes
        Glosses (Frans van Liere) **
        Guild Books (Massimo Vallerani) June 2008
        Hagiographical Texts (Michelle M. Sauer) **
        Herbal Books (Letty Nijhuis) March 10, 2008
        Heroic Epics and Sagas (Hermann Reichert) **
        Historical Romances (Jaime Leanos) **
        Kharjas (Samuel G. Armistead) **
        Lapidaries (Rosmarie Morewedge) March 15, 2008
        Last Wills (Hiram Kümper **
        Latin Comedies (Gretchen Mieszkowski) **
        Legal Texts (Hiram Kümper) **
        Letters (Christian Kuhn) **
        Letter Collections (Walter Ysebaert) **
        Lexica, Botanical (Alain Touwaide); Date: Sept., 2008
        Martyrology (Meta Niederkorn-Bruck) March 30, 2008
        Medical Treatises (Letty Nijhuis) March 10, 2008

        Minnereden (Maurice Sprague) **
        Miracle narratives (Daniel E. O’Sullivan) **
        Mirrors for Princes (Christian Bratu) **
            Islamic Mirrors of Princes (Mark David Luce) **
        Monastic Rules
        Notarial Texts (Edward English) **
        Numismatic Literature (Rory Naismith) **
        Papal Bulls (Herwig Weigl) **
        Penitentials and Confessionals (Michelle M. Sauer) **
        Philosophical Treatises (Stephen Penn) **
        Political Treatise (Vasileios Syros) **
        Prayer Books (Elina Gertsman) **
        Prosopography, Arabic (R. Kevin Jacques) April 20, 2008
        Proverbs and Riddles (Rosmarie Morewedge) March 15, 2008
        Quid Pro Quo (Alain Touwaide), Date: Sept., 2008
        Receptaries (Alain Touwaide)Date: Sept., 2008

        Religious Lyrics (Daniel E. O’Sullivan) **
        Religious Romances (Salvatore Calomino) April 15, 2008
        Riddle, see Proverbs
        Royal and Princely Documents ()
        Schoolbooks (Michael Baldzuhn) **
        Scientific Texts (artes liberales and artes mechanicae) (Carrie Griffin) **
        Sermons (Robert W. Zajkowski) **
        Short Verse Narratives (fabliaux, mæren, novelli, lais) (Norris J. Lacy) **
        Sisterbooks (David Tinsley) **
        Translations (K. Sarah-Jane Murray)
        Travelogues (Maria Dorninger) **
        Troubadours, Trouvères, Minnesang, stil dolce nuovo (Ulrich Müller) **
        Villancicos, Cantigas de Amigo (Samuel G. Armistead) **
        Visionary Texts (Elizabeth Boyle) **
        World Maps (mappae mundi) (Eike Schnall) **

        D. Key figures in medieval studies from ca. 1650 to ca. 1950 (selection)
        Each entry consists of max. 10,000 characters.

        Adler, Guido (Pieter Mannaerts) **
        Auerbach, Erich (Bettina Full) **
        Bäuml, Franz (Rosmarie Morewedge) April 30, 2008
        Barbi, Michele (Beatrice Arduini) **
        Baron, Salo (Robert W. Zajkowski) **
        Bartsch, Karl (Salvatore Calomino) April 15, 2008
        Baer, Yitzhak (Philip Slavin) **
        Bédier, Joseph (Craig Baker) **
        Benecke, Georg Friedrich (Gertrud Blaschitz) **
        Besseler, Heinrich (Pieter Mannaerts) **
        Bezzola, R. R. (Markus I. Cruse) **
        Billanovich, Giuseppe (David Lummus) **
        Bischoff, Bernhard (Hiram Kümper) **
        Bloch, Marc (Nadia Margolis) **
        Bodmer, Johann Jakob (Maurice Sprague): **
        Borst, Arno (Judith Benz) **
        Bosl, Karl (Stephen Mark Carey) **
        Boyle, Leonard Eugene (Christine Maria Grafinger) **
        Branca, Vittore (Federica Anichini) **
        Braune, W. (Joshua Davis) **
        Brunner, Otto (Judith Benz) **
        Burdach, Karl (Gertrud Blaschitz) **
        Canegem, R. C. van (Robert Harbison)
        Cappelli, A. (Christine Maria Grafinger) **
        Cardini, Franco (Daniel Rötzer) **
        Carducci, Giosuè (Federica Anichini)
        Castro, Américo (Samuel G. Armistead) **
        Chenu, Marie-Dominique (Leo D. Lefebure) **
        Cleasby, Richard (Marc Pierce) **
        Cohen, Gustave (Nadia Margolis) **
        Comparetti, Domenico (Paolo De Ventura)
        Contini, Gianfranco (Beatrice Arduini) **
        Curtius, Ernst Robert (Alexander Sager) **
        D’Alverny, Choulant Ludwig
        D’Ancona, Alessandro (Claudia Boscolo) **
        Davidsohn, Robert  (Julia Bolton Holloway)
        De Boor, Helmut (Salvatore Calomino) May 1, 2008
        Deyermond, Alan D. (Louise Haywood) Date: June, 2008

        Docen, Bernhard Joseph (Maurice Sprague): **
        Donaldson, E. T. (Kathy Cawsey) **
        Dopsch, Alfons (Valerie Garver) **
        Duby, Georges (Carol Dover) **
        Duhem, Pierre (Sarah Powrie) **
        Ehrismann, Gustav (Alexander Sager)
        Ettmüller, Ludwig (Maria-Claudia Tomany)
        Ewert, Alfred (Craig Baker) **
        Faral, Edmond (Anne Latowsky) **
        Fichtenau, Heinrich (Christoph Egger)
        Finnur Jonsson (Russell Poole) **
        Foerster, Wendelin (Max Grosse)
        Frappier, Jean (Raymond Cormier) **
        Fuhrmann, Horst (Karina Marie Ash) **
        Funkenstein, Amos (Yossef Schwartz) **
        Furnivall (Kathy Cawsey) **
        Ganshof, F. L. (Valerie Garver) **
        Gerbert, Martin (Christine Maria Grafinger)**
        Gibson, Margaret (Dominic Marner)
        Gilson, Etienne (Daniel Rötzer) **
        Gollancz, Israel (Stephen Penn) **
        Grabar, André (Linda Rouillard) **
        Grabmann, Martin (Yossef Schwartz) **
        Grimm, Wilhelm and Jacob (Scott Pincikowski) **
        Gröber, G. (Florin Berindeanu) mid Oct. 2008
        Grundmann, Herbert (Christoph Egger)
        Gurevich, Aaron (Elena Lemeneva) **
        Hagen, Heinrich Friedrich von der (Christopher Clason) **
        Hampe, K. (Mary Paddock)
        Haskins, Charles (Salvatore Calomino) May 1, 2008
        Haupt, Moriz (Gertrud Blaschitz) **
        Heer, Friedrich (Peter Dinzelbacher) **
        Heusler, Andreas (Maria-Claudia Tomany)
        Hibbard, Laura (Linda Rouillard) **
        Hilka, Alfons (Wendy Pfeffer and Albrecht Classen) **
        Hilton, Rodney (Candace Barrington) **
        Holmes, Urban Tigner (Nadia Margolis) **
        Holthausen, Ferdinand (Marc Pierce) **
        Huizinga, Johan (Tracy Adams) **
        James, Montague Rhodes (Markus I. Cruse) **
        Jeanroy, Alfred (Beverly J. Evans) **
        Junius (Eike Schnall and Robert Paulsen) **
        Jordan, R.
        Kane, George (Marilyn Sandidge) **
        Kantorowicz, E. H. (Roberto Delle Donne) **
        Katz, Jacob (David Graizbord) **
        Kehr, Paul Fridolin (Christoph Egger)
        Ker, Neil R. (Peter Stokes) **
        Ker, W. P. (Barbara Stevenson) **
        Kibre, Pearl (Carrie Griffing) **
        Kittredge, G. L. (Kathy Cawsey) **
        Klaeber, F. (Helen Damico) **
        Klibansky, Raymond (Sarah Powrie) **
        Kosminsky, E. A.
        Kuhn, Hugo (Markus Stock) **
        Kuhn, Sherman (Marc Pierce) **
        Kurath, H. (Marc Pierce) **
        Kuttner, Stephan (Scott Taylor) **
        Ladner, Gerhard B. (Christine Maria Grafinger) **
        Lachmann, Karl (Stephen M. Carey) **
        Lagarde, George de (Scott Taylor) **
        Lamprecht, Karl (Christopher Clason) **
        Lassberg, Joseph Freiherr von (Maurice Sprague): **
        Leclerq, Jean (Daniel J. Watkins) **
        Le Goff, Jacques (Carol Dover) **
        Lehmann, Paul (Alison Beringer) **
        Lejeune, Rita (Kevin Reynolds) **
        Lewis, C. S. (Jason Herman) **
        Lexer, Matthias (Graeme Dunphy) **
        Liepe, Wolfgang (Albrecht Classen) **
        Loomis, R. S. (Amy Ingram) **
        Lot, Ferdinand (Amy Ingram) **
        Lowe, E. A. (Peter Stokes) **
        Luick, Karl (Jerzy Welna) **
        Lubac, Henri de (Michael Johnson) **
        Magnússon, Árni (Jens Eike Schnall) **
        Maier, Anneliese (Sarah Powrie) **
        Maitland, Frederick William (Janice M. Bogstad) **
        Mâle, Emile (Dominic Marner)
        Malkiel, Yakov (Samuel G. Amistead) **
        Mallet, Paul Henri (Jens Eike Schnall) **
        Manly, J. M.  (Anita Obermeier) **
        Manitius, Max (Alison Beringer) **
        Massmann, Hans Ferdinand (Maurice Sprague): **
        Maurer, Friedrich (Brian Murdoch) **
        Meyer, Paul (Anne Latowsky) **
        Mitteis, Heinrich (Albrecht Classen) **
        Mohr, Wolfgang (Ulrich Müller) **
        Müllenhoff, Karl (Maurice Sprague): **
        Munch, Andreas (Marc Pierce) March 8, 2008
        Murray, J. A. H. (Marc Pierce) **
        Mustanoja, T. (Kirsti-M. Peitsara) **
        Nardi, Bruno (David Lummus) **
        Nordal, Sigurdur (Maria-Claudia Tomany)
        Noreen, Adolf (Marc Pierce) **
        Ohly, Friedrich (Graeme Dunphy) **
        Panofsky, Erwin (Dominic Marner)
        Painter, Sidney (Robert Harbison)
        Paris, Gaston (Daniel E. O’Sullivan) **
        Paul, Hermann (Marc Pierce) **
        Pfeiffer, Franz (Gertrud Blaschitz) **
        Pidal, Ramón Menéndez (Kimberlee Campbell) **
        Pirenne, Henri (Jeffrey Paul Fynn) March 28, 2008
        Postan, Michael (Robert Harbison)
        Power, Eileen (Letty Nijhuis) March 10, 2008
        Prawer, Joshua (Philip Slavin) **
        Pritzel, Georg August
        Rajna, Pio (Claudia Boscolo) **
        Reese, Gustave (Beverly Evans) **
        Rickert, Edith (Letty Nijhuis) March 10, 2008
        Rico, Francisco (Enrico Santangelo) **
        Riquer, Martín de (Kimberlee Campbell) **
        Robertson, D. W. (Jason Herman) **
        Robinson, Fred N. (Anita Obermeier) **
        Rougemont, Denis de (Linda Rouillard) **
        Ruh, Kurt (Ulrich Müller)
        Runciman, Sir Steven (Robert W. Zajkowski) **
        Sapegno, Natalino (Enrico Santangelo) **
        Sapori, Armando (Christine Maria Grafinger) **
        Scherer, Wilhelm (Maurice Sprague) **
        Schlegel, August W. (Christopher Clason) **
        Schlegel, Friedrich (Berta Raposo) **
        Schoepperle Loomis, Gertrude (Karina Marie Ash) **
        Scholem, Gershom (Robert W. Zajkowski) **
        Schramm, Percy Ernst (Janos M. Bak) **
        Schultz, Alwin (Gertrud Blaschitz) **
        Schwietering, Julius (Heiko Hartmann) **
        Segre, Cesare (Paolo de Ventura)
        Sholem, Gershom (Robert W. Zajkowski)
        Sievers, Eduard (Russell Poole) **
        Simrock, Karl (Christopher Clason) **
        Skeat, W. W. (Kathy Cawsey) **
        Southern, Richard (Amy Ingram) **
        Speyer, Wilhelm
        Sprengel, Kurt

        Stengel, Edmund E. (Andreas Meyer) **
        Spitzer, Leo (Bettina Full) **
        Strauch, Philipp (Albrecht Classen) **
        Tellenbach, Gerd (Christine Maria Grafinger) **
        Thorndike, Lynn (Letty Nijhuis) March 10, 2008
        Tolkien, J. R. R. (Katharina Baier) **
        Traube, Ludwig (Francesco Roberg) **
        Vilmar, A.F. C. (Marc Pierce) **
        Vinaver, Eugène (Amy Ingram) **
        Waddell, Helen Jane (Robin Gilbank) **
        Wackernagel, Wilhelm (Maurice Sprague) **
        Weber, Gottfried (Waltraud Fritsch-Rößler) **
        Wehrli, Max (Heiko Hartmann) **
        White, Lynn, Jr. (Candace Barrington) **
        Whitelock, Dorothy (Ben Snook) **
        Winterfeld, Paul von (Wolfgang Maaz)
        Wright, Joseph (Marc Pierce) March 8, 2008
        Young, Karl and his followers (Regula Meyer Evitt) **
        Zingerle, Ignaz (Gertrud Blaschitz) **
        Zumthor, Paul (Tracy Adams) **

Detailed bibliography (structured by topics)

Index of key-works on medieval studies

Index of names